American sculptor Alexander Calder (1898 – 1976) was a pioneer of abstract sculptures as either kinetic ‘mobiles’ or static ‘stabiles’. Calder studied engineering before attending the Art Students League, New York, to study painting in 1923. In 1926 he began to make small animated animals in wood and wire, which eventually became numerous enough to form a circus. In 1952, Calder represented the United States at the Venice Biennale and was awarded the main prize for sculpture. In 1987, the Calder Foundation was established by the artist’s family. Calder’s works are held in many permanent collections across the world including The Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, the Museum of Modern Art, New York, the Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, and the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.